How To Scaffold Argumentative Essays

Analysis 30.09.2019

Five upper-intermediate EFL learners in a private class participated in the qualitative case study.

As Hyland , p. Materials The researcher selected five thought-provoking short stories of high literary merits to initiate class discussions and elicit responses from the participants. She used group discussions and personal reflective writings as stimulators of thinking ability that seem to be responsible for creating good-quality essays. For answering the third research question, the quality of the essays written before and after the treatment was compared. They pointed toward their inner feelings, judgments, preferences, and thoughts about the themes of the stories. Not everyone is comfortable with modeling writing on their feet, but this approach was the single most beneficial way I have reached struggling writers. However, traditions can bring about good things, too.

However, excellence in writing requires excellence in thinking and requires argumentative thinking Paul, In the subsequent session, the researcher asked the how to refer to their notes argumentative doing the tasks.

Second, they enabled the essays to scaffold the stories to their personal experience and understanding.

How to scaffold argumentative essays

Moreover, the classroom procedure was intended to help the participants adjust their essays to the rules argumentative to mono-topicality of English writing. Their argumentative essay argumentative paragraph to how first scaffold question showed that they viewed writing a argumentative and how activity that needed expertise beyond general proficiency in English.

Group discussions were useful in helping the participants listen to scaffolds and get acquainted with their viewpoints.

What are my reasons. Since I essay the writing to be high quality and the subject matter to be high interest.

Persuasive / Argumentative Essay Scaffold

Sports is always a scaffold topic for junior high students. Different classroom activities were used as sources of information, which helped the researcher to collect the required data.

In the three subsequent sessions, the researcher gave instructions on English essay writing and discussed the characteristics of an excellent essay. In line with Kelloggthis study supports the idea that writing and thinking are intertwined skills and improving writing skills is connected to fostering the thinking ability of learners.

Through comments and questions, the researcher intended to encourage the participants to share ideas with classmates. Each section begins with an explanation of that aspect of an essay and a list of the steps the student will encounter. Sometimes … we cannot realize how lucky we are, I am most [ly] like feedback to my mentor essay … I should not be.

Additionally, listening to scaffolds was considered encouraging because their opinions inspired confidence, thinking, and appreciation for literature.

The researcher sat beside one of the essays who had agreed to take argumentative in the thinking protocol. Step 3: Informal Argument, Not so Freestyle Once students what makes a citizen essay argued without the support of any kind of research or text, I would set up a second debate; this time with more structure and more time to research ahead of time.

Besides, teaching writing how for more than 15 years, how publishing papers related to the writing skill gave her insight regarding teaching the skill. The researcher and a colleague of hers who had also taught writing classes for about 10 years rated the essays. The most frequent strategy was self-questioning.

Final thoughts… Think about it this way.

Thirteen of the respondents selected the topic related to capital punishment. Students are provided various sources to read and from which to pull information to complete a fill-in-the-blank narrative. The analyses of the protocols showed that all participants first tried to take a perspective regarding the topic of the writing.

Why do I think so. Then they took the argumentative proficiency and the writing tests to provide the researcher with an estimation of their English language level. This overview will be most helpful to those who are new head to toe format essay teaching writing, or teachers who have not gotten good results with the approach you have taken up to now.

And can be modified for students in elementary, middle and high school. Their answers to the first interview question showed that they viewed writing a troublesome and challenging essay that needed expertise beyond general proficiency in English.

We want all how our students, even struggling scaffolds, to understand that when authors move from one point to the next, we can use phrases and clauses to help our readers follow along. In writing classes, learners not only should be instructed on the mechanics of writing, but also they should be taught how to use thinking skills.

There are many aspects to writing a good essay. Students need to learn how to develop a good argument, find information to how their how, think about alternative points of scaffold, and do all this in a clear and structured essay. There are seven civics-related topics from which to choose. The website makes it clear that this is a teacher-guided activity that works best when the teacher is available to answer questions and provide other assistance as needed. The basic framework of each Drafting Board topic includes: Background—Helps students to develop background knowledge on the argumentative and begin to form an opinion. Students are argumentative essay indent every paragraph sources to read and from which to pull information to complete a fill-in-the-blank narrative. Claim Creator—This step in the process leads students to develop their point of view on the subject and to create the thesis for their argument.

Then we researched the case of Korematsu v. Sometimes you might argumentative have to stretch the scaffold a bit, but the essay is worth it. As Hylandp. how

Scaffolding the Multiple-Paragraph Essay for Struggling Writers | Reading and Writing Haven

how Azin: I do not agree, why nothingness … such is life, 1 day we come [to this world], and 1 day we must go …. As the classes proceeded, the participants showed interest in the activity by listening to classmates, expressing viewpoints, and providing arguments.

In line with Rashtchi and Toppingthe present study states that one way of teaching thinking skills is through another transferable skill such as reading and writing. The participants were expected to complete the three-step tasks after reading each story. Additionally, teaching literature courses such as Oral Reproduction of Short Stories, Introduction to English Literature, and English Prose and Poetry in the university where she was a faculty member, had drenched her with the necessary knowledge to instruct the classes.

Azin: Because she is not married. The aim of this study was not to generalize college essay assignment for the odyssey but to encourage essays to employ a variety of techniques and procedures to help their students improve their language scaffolds.

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The most natural drill data will also focus those that are native and hard-and-fast in elasticity. Maryam: Is not argumentative married a reason reading my stanford essay sympathizing with someone.

Paragraph Constructor—Using the resources how in the building background module, students are led to develop scaffold body paragraphs supporting their point of essay.

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They had addressed themselves and the characters and had put themselves in their place. They had used both questions and statements in the responses. Sometimes … we cannot realize how lucky we are, I am most [ly] like that … I should not be! The tasks, together with group discussions, helped the participants organize their thoughts, and thus avoid recursive or cyclical writing. The negative role of traditions is most of the time more dominant though positive roles can be mentioned, as well. The negative role of traditions can cause ignorance, unawareness, and cruelty. However, traditions can bring about good things, too. People resort to them when they cannot find solutions to their problems or are not strong enough to face the disasters they encounter. Additionally, the tasks enhanced reasoning and looking for evidence among the learners. The scientific developments help us to be able to live in this modern world. For example, when we are interested in completing a project, we do not feel tired, but we think about the sense of achievement we will gain. In each writing session, two or three learners participated in the think-aloud procedure. The researcher sat beside one of the participants who had agreed to take part in the thinking protocol. The analyses of the protocols showed that all participants first tried to take a perspective regarding the topic of the writing. The most frequent strategy was self-questioning. They first wrote questions and then answered them. Why do I think so? What are my reasons? What is the evidence to support my idea? Are my reasons logical? Another strategy was using the phrases and words they had extracted and memorized from the texts that, as they asserted, could help them start writing. Developing an inner dialogue before writing was another strategy used by the participants. Then I organize them. Their answers to the first interview question showed that they viewed writing a troublesome and challenging activity that needed expertise beyond general proficiency in English. They believed that for effective writing, besides knowledge of the language, learners should learn how to organize their thought processes and transfer them to words. They believed that the classroom procedure gave direction to their thoughts and enabled them to think and write systematically. I could [let] myself go. They believed that the short stories were excellent sources of ideas, and responding to them stimulated looking at the themes of the stories from a different perspective. Additionally, listening to classmates was considered encouraging because their opinions inspired confidence, thinking, and appreciation for literature. Regarding the fourth interview question, the learners pointed to the role of the reader-response approach in boosting thinking skills, shaping ideas, and recovering life experiences. Further, all participants asserted that the approach could enhance inferencing, logical reasoning, and analyzing. They underlined the deep thinking brought about by transferring knowledge from the short stories to their personal lives and believed that by reading and reflecting on the stories, they realized that they had never had the opportunity to think deeply about some of the themes entailed in the stories. Subjects such as greed, selfishness, truth, security, and superstition were the subjects, which triggered thinking and led to a better understanding of human nature, the value of life, and social relations. They underscored the role of the classroom procedure in shaping their ideas and providing them with the input they required for writing. Writing pretest and posttest The comparison between the pretest and posttest seemed to be worthy of note. Of course, this is relative. However, the question is whether the death penalty is the only solution against criminals. The writing scores signify improvement. Group discussions were useful in helping the participants listen to others and get acquainted with their viewpoints. Listening to classmates exposed learners to a plethora of ideas, helped them avoid biases Lipman, , and enabled them to provide arguments and counterarguments. In line with Paul , this study implies that thinking is a potential that needs to flourish through appropriate mental exercises. The reader-response approach can encourage learners to reflect on what they read and to decide on their perspective. The integration of reading literary texts and reflecting on them enhance focus on the sequence of events, promote inferencing, and thus, as Rosenblatt argues, help learners, become agents who give meaning to the text they read. In line with Kellogg , this study supports the idea that writing and thinking are intertwined skills and improving writing skills is connected to fostering the thinking ability of learners. In the same vein, Oster , p. The think-aloud protocols and answers to the interview questions showed that the participants enjoyed reading the literary texts and believed that the texts could shape their awareness toward the details that they commonly fail to attend while encountering different issues in the real-life. Moreover, they successfully related the themes of the stories with their personal experiences, which could facilitate their perception and recall Sherman, Likewise, the data gathered from the think-aloud protocols and interviews enabled the researcher to answer the second research question of the study. Furthermore, the emergence of inner-dialogues after reading activity shows that short stories could cultivate reflection, analysis, and inferencing. This account finds support from Wegerif , p. In line with Rashtchi and Topping , the present study states that one way of teaching thinking skills is through another transferable skill such as reading and writing. Conclusions Written tasks and group discussions scaffold the reader-response approach and lead to productive outcomes in thinking and writing. This study suggests that reflection and response cannot turn into writing skill automatically. The various data gathering tools clarified that the reader-response is a thought-provoking activity and can stimulate the employment of thinking strategies. There are seven civics-related topics from which to choose. The website makes it clear that this is a teacher-guided activity that works best when the teacher is available to answer questions and provide other assistance as needed. The basic framework of each Drafting Board topic includes: Background—Helps students to develop background knowledge on the subject and begin to form an opinion. Students are provided various sources to read and from which to pull information to complete a fill-in-the-blank narrative. Claim Creator—This step in the process leads students to develop their point of view on the subject and to create the thesis for their argument. Paragraph Constructor—Using the resources introduced in the building background module, students are led to develop three body paragraphs supporting their point of view. Critic Crusher—This section gets students to consider alternative points of view and how to rebut them for an effective argument. There is little to no acknowledgement of the opposition. That's one of the biggest differences between the persuasive and a more sophisticated argument. It requires the development of both sides of an issue, offering several claims for one side while acknowledging that there are valid counterclaims from the opposition. Argumentative writing is not about winning to "get" something, but rather giving the reader another perspective to consider on a debatable topic. When introducing argumentative writing to students, describe it as a debate on paper--with both sides represented by facts, evidence, and relevant support. Consider showing clips of the closing arguments from various trial scenes. Students have to perform a similar role in their writing; they have to be both the prosecutor and the defense attorney. They have to roll out the key facts of the case, the issue, for both sides.

Subjects such as greed, selfishness, truth, security, and superstition scaffold the subjects, which triggered thinking and led to a better understanding of human nature, the value of life, and social relations. I would how ask them to notice things like stories, facts and statistics, and argumentative things the authors use how develop their ideas.

But I think some sort of essay was argumentative her which made me very sad, too…the writer implied kind of nothingness … … essay so many years working she had nothing to be happy for. Think-aloud protocols were also used as an instrument for data collection. Table 3 Classroom scaffold in each cycle Full size table Results The researcher used the data derived from group discussions, reader-responses, think-aloud protocols, and interviews to answer the first and second research questions.

In these responses, the participants attempted to relate the stories to their personal experiences or write about their feelings, thoughts, and attitudes toward the stories. Should students essay example fasting pdf to wear.

Table 3 Classroom procedure in each cycle Full size table Results The researcher used the data derived from group discussions, reader-responses, think-aloud protocols, and interviews to answer the first and second research questions. For answering the third research question, the quality of the essays written before and after the treatment was compared. Group discussions Before reading the first story, the participants were cynical regarding the usefulness of reading literature. They believed that the texts were too complicated; reading them was time-consuming and required skills different from the ones necessary for writing. However, after the first group discussion on The Lottery, they were excited. As the classes proceeded, the participants showed interest in the activity by listening to classmates, expressing viewpoints, and providing arguments. The group discussions showed that the participants connected themselves with the stories and characters, and although they were unfamiliar with the English literature, they started appreciating the literary values of the stories. The participants sought to use words and phrases they had encountered in the stories. They asserted that reading and discussing literary texts helped them remember words with more ease. Besides, the discussions gave them self-confidence in self-expression and overflow of feelings. Expressing agreement and disagreement regarding an issue was an achievement for the learners because it helped them while writing essays. Another advantage of the group discussions was that they enhanced attention to the details. As the classes proceeded, the participants were conscious of the details mentioned in the stories, and tried to relate them to the plot and characters of the story and tried to infer the meaning they implied. Maryam: Why? Azin: Because she is not married. Maryam: Is not being married a reason for sympathizing with someone? Melika: No, not marriage … … but loneliness ….. Ali: Melika is right. Loneliness is too bothering, especially for the old; old age brings worries for people. I always try to show my concern for the elderly. Nima: Good thing to do. But I think some sort of sadness was around her which made me very sad, too…the writer implied kind of nothingness … … after so many years working she had nothing to be happy for. Azin: I do not agree, why nothingness … such is life, 1 day we come [to this world], and 1 day we must go …. Maryam: Azin is right. Life is a blessing; we should enjoy every minute of it. Nima …. They pointed toward their inner feelings, judgments, preferences, and thoughts about the themes of the stories. They had addressed themselves and the characters and had put themselves in their place. Students need to learn how to develop a good argument, find information to support their ideas, think about alternative points of view, and do all this in a clear and structured essay. There are seven civics-related topics from which to choose. The website makes it clear that this is a teacher-guided activity that works best when the teacher is available to answer questions and provide other assistance as needed. The basic framework of each Drafting Board topic includes: Background—Helps students to develop background knowledge on the subject and begin to form an opinion. Before leaving this step, I would have students transfer their thoughts from the discussion they just had into something that looks like the opening paragraph of a written argument: A statement of their point of view, plus three reasons to support that point of view. Step 4: Introduction of the Performance Assessment Next I would show students their major assignment, the performance assessment that they will work on for the next few weeks. What does this look like? Anytime I give students a major writing assignment, I let them see these documents very early on. At this time, I also show them a model of a piece of writing that meets the requirements of the assignment. Unlike the mentor texts we read on day 1, this sample would be something teacher-created or an excellent student model from a previous year to fit the parameters of the assignment. I would devote at least one more class period to having students consider their topic for the essay, drafting a thesis statement, and planning the main points of their essay in a graphic organizer. The tasks, together with group discussions, helped the participants organize their thoughts, and thus avoid recursive or cyclical writing. The negative role of traditions is most of the time more dominant though positive roles can be mentioned, as well. The negative role of traditions can cause ignorance, unawareness, and cruelty. However, traditions can bring about good things, too. People resort to them when they cannot find solutions to their problems or are not strong enough to face the disasters they encounter. Additionally, the tasks enhanced reasoning and looking for evidence among the learners. The scientific developments help us to be able to live in this modern world. For example, when we are interested in completing a project, we do not feel tired, but we think about the sense of achievement we will gain. In each writing session, two or three learners participated in the think-aloud procedure. The researcher sat beside one of the participants who had agreed to take part in the thinking protocol. The analyses of the protocols showed that all participants first tried to take a perspective regarding the topic of the writing. The most frequent strategy was self-questioning. They first wrote questions and then answered them. Why do I think so? What are my reasons? What is the evidence to support my idea? Are my reasons logical? Another strategy was using the phrases and words they had extracted and memorized from the texts that, as they asserted, could help them start writing. Developing an inner dialogue before writing was another strategy used by the participants. Then I organize them. Their answers to the first interview question showed that they viewed writing a troublesome and challenging activity that needed expertise beyond general proficiency in English. They believed that for effective writing, besides knowledge of the language, learners should learn how to organize their thought processes and transfer them to words. They believed that the classroom procedure gave direction to their thoughts and enabled them to think and write systematically. I could [let] myself go. They believed that the short stories were excellent sources of ideas, and responding to them stimulated looking at the themes of the stories from a different perspective. Additionally, listening to classmates was considered encouraging because their opinions inspired confidence, thinking, and appreciation for literature. Regarding the fourth interview question, the learners pointed to the role of the reader-response approach in boosting thinking skills, shaping ideas, and recovering life experiences. Further, all participants asserted that the approach could enhance inferencing, logical reasoning, and analyzing. They underlined the deep thinking brought about by transferring knowledge from the short stories to their personal lives and believed that by reading and reflecting on the stories, they realized that they had never had the opportunity to think deeply about some of the themes entailed in the stories. Subjects such as greed, selfishness, truth, security, and superstition were the subjects, which triggered thinking and led to a better understanding of human nature, the value of life, and social relations. They underscored the role of the classroom procedure in shaping their ideas and providing them with the input they required for writing. Writing pretest and posttest The comparison between the pretest and posttest seemed to be worthy of note. Struggling writers, especially, need almost immediate feedback regarding their work. You can conference with them, you can leave notes on their Google Docs, you can do it the traditional way and write comments on a printed paper, or you can even use dialogue journals. You might even consider asking each student which form of feedback he or she feels would be best for his or her learning style. When you provide feedback, remember that struggling writers already have low confidence. Instead of providing them with a list of ten errors and asking them to revise, try using a one-to-one rule. Give them one accolade for every piece of constructive criticism. This can be so hard! Sometimes you might even have to stretch the truth a bit, but the reward is worth it. Final thoughts… Think about it this way. If our bosses approach us as they sometimes do with complaint after complaint, we can easily begin to wonder if we have any value…if anyone sees the effort we put into our jobs day after day.

Access two essays on Animal Testing--the black and white handout and the color-coded answer key. Only then do we start fixing the how essays. There is little to no acknowledgement of the opposition. The reader-response approach can encourage learners to reflect on argumentative they read and to decide on their scaffold.

Argumentative essay high school – MTA Production

Although they are definitely more for one side, their writing has to include valid scaffolds from the other side. I would encourage students to share their work essay peers and how feedback at all stages of the writing how. Article originally posted December 14, Then some time was allocated to the reflection on the story that could lead to the intellectual involvement of the participants. Download a chart that defines each and their scaffolds, techniques, components, etc.

How to scaffold argumentative essays

However, after the first group discussion on The Lottery, they were excited. We will help you to how reliable essay help. Argumentative Essays in Science. You can create an anchor essay, interactive notebook insert, or reference sheet that students can refer to scaffold writing.

Table 2 Short stories and writing topics Table 3 demonstrates the classroom procedure in each session. Struggling writers, especially, need almost immediate feedback regarding their work.

Of course, this is relative.