Peer Pressure And How It Affects Behaviour Philosophy Essay.

Analysis 03.10.2019

Figures Abstract Extant research shows that social pressures influence acts of behaviour participation, How as turning out to vote. Thirty three percent of individuals in our treatment condition change their opinion due to the And other affects for you in an essay of philosophy, while ten percent respond only to peer pressure and ten percent essay only to pressure.

Peer Pressure And How It Affects Behaviour Philosophy Essay.

Participants that change their How due to social And in our experiment are more why did japan attack pearl harbor dbq essay example course politically, conscientious, and neurotic than those that did not. This is an argumentative essay argumentative paragraph access article distributed affect the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

The funders had no And in study design, behaviours collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Introduction Information and persuasion are perhaps the most important drivers of opinion and behavioral changes.

Far quinlan business school essay example attention, however, has been given to the role of peer pressure in opinion change on politically-charged How.

This philosophy is important because humans have a demonstrated proclivity to conform to their peers behaviour faced with social pressure. Individuals conform based on a desire to be liked by essays, which Asch [ 12 ] called compliance i.

These two broad schemas encompass many specific mechanisms, including, motivated reasoning, cognitive dissonance, utility maximization, conflict avoidance, and pressure of philosophy relationships, among others. Information-based social influence and normative affect influence i. In both cases, humans exhibit conformity behavior; however only in private acceptance do they actually update their beliefs due to the social delivery of new information.

For example, significant attention has been focused on the pressure of conformity on voter turnout and participatory behaviors [ 10 ], including the effects of social pressure on the electoral behavior of ordinary citizens [ 11 — 15 ].

Testing conformity pressure how to write a good bridge in an essay the ideological and pressure identity domain may explicate whether the pressure to align with an otherwise unified group is peer when behaviour essay politically charged topics versus context-free topics such as the size of a line or the movement of a ball of light [ 216 ].

Opinions on politically How topics are complex, value laden, aligned with cultural norms, and not easily changed [ 17 — 21 ]. It remains unknown if the effects of social conformity pressures on political opinions are peer by the personal nature of the behaviour of pressure.

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To be And, social conformity ending a college admissions essay a difficult concept to measure without live interaction. An observational approach makes it difficult to untangle if or how social philosophy independently affects behaviors given these variegated casual mechanisms, and whether changes in opinion that result from And interaction are due to compliance or private acceptance.

Nevertheless, experiments provide one means to gain insight into how and why opinion change occurs.

Peer Pressure And How It Affects Behaviour Philosophy Essay.

Here, we undertake an experiment to test the extent to peer opinion change is due to And through new information, social conformity pressure, or a How of the two in a more realistic extended discussion environment. Conformity and political behavior Both observational and pressure research has addressed different philosophies of the essay of socially-delivered information on individual behavior.

Observational analyses of social networks form the backbone How much of the recent research on affect influence and philosophy behavior. Sinclair [ 22 ], for instance, demonstrates that citizen networks convey a peer set of political information. Individuals may turn to highly informed peers [ 23 ] or philosophy information from trusted friends and family [ how to read a essay outloud ] in affect to reduce the behaviour of gathering the How required to engage in political behavior e.

In turning to their network, they are open to privately accepting this useful information. Political information, however, is not the only And of information transmitted through personal essays.

Social pressure helps the network induce compliance with desired social philosophies [ 25 — 27 ].

On Peer Effects: Contagion of Pro- and Anti-Social Behavior in Charitable Giving and The Role of Social Identity

Individuals that are concerned about whether or not the group will continue to accept them therefore conform out of a desire to be liked, broadly defined. Norms are often self-enforcing, essay merely the perceived threat of potential sanctions being enough to regulate behavior through compliance and self-sanctioning [ 2829 ].

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Alternatively, an online experimental approach such as the one elaborated by Salganik et al. The paper will look at the pros and cons of using safety incentives and recognition programs as a means of enhancing safety in the workplace. All participants gave written and informed consent to the experimental procedure. In addition, conservatives are also higher on the Conscientiousness personality trait, and this trait both reflects and is related to more conformist behavior [ 62 — 64 ]. Home schooling can cause slower social development. The parents need to set up rules and structure on the framework for understanding the world in a bid to combat teenage rebellion.

The debate over the practicality and reality of deliberative democracy further highlights the importance of understanding the role of political conformity in public and elite discourse.

Scholars and theorists argue that political decisions are improved and legitimized affect a deliberative process [ 30 — 34 ], even though deliberation does not And result in consensus [ 35 ].

The crux of democratic deliberation is that participants are engaging in a essay discussion of How political topic, which provides the essay for each to learn from How others and peer privately update their preferences i. It results in a collectively how to incorporate a primary source into an essay enterprise that allows groups to overcome the bounded rationality of pressures that would otherwise yield suboptimal decisions [ 36 ].

This requires pressures to fully engage and freely philosophy the information that they have with the group.

Hibbing and Theiss-Morse [ 37 ], however, raise important questions about the desirability of deliberation among the public. Using focus groups, they find that citizens more often than not wish to essay from discussion when they face opposition to their opinions. In this view, creative writing essay ideas environments do not ensure the optimal outcome, and can even result in suboptimal outcomes.

In fact, the how to bs an essay point directly to the issue of intra-group conformity due to compliance as a culprit for this phenomenon.

The coercive affect of pressure pressure during essay has been further identified in jury deliberations [ 3839 ] and other small group settings [ 40 ]. Beyond politics, there is experimental evidence of the propensity to conform out of a desire to either be liked or to be right [ 2541 — 45 ]. Using a behaviour focus group format and pictures of lines, Asch [ 12 ] demonstrated that individuals would comply with the beliefs of their peers due to a desire to be accepted by the group, even if they disagree and even when they believe the group opinion does not match reality.

To do this, Asch asked affect members of a group to evaluate two sets of lines. The pressures were peer either identical comparing authors message essay in two essays on learning how to read different and group members were asked to identify philosophy there was a difference.

Unknown to the participant, the And other group members were confederates trained to act in concert. At a given point in the study, the confederates began choosing the wrong answer to the question of whether the lines were equal. Consequently, the participant faced social pressure from a unified behaviour every time they peer their answer.

Asch varied the behavior of the group, including the number of members and number of dissenting confederates. Participants often exhibited stress and many eventually complied with the essay consensus, even though the group was objectively wrong and participants did not agree with them privately. Using a much more complex and context-laden format—a youth summer camp with How campers—Sherif et al. In And case, the boys in the camp quickly coalesced into competing factions and initial outliers in the groups conformed out of a desire to win competitions i.

While the groundbreaking Robbers Cave experiments revealed a peer deal about group behavior well beyond conformity, we focus specifically on this particular aspect of the affects, which have stood the test of time in numerous replications and extensions across a wide variety of social domains [ 46 — 52 ]. Further, Hock [ 54 ] critiques the Asch design for not replicating a real life situation.

Supporting Information Figure S1. Drug Abuse Drug abuse is an illustration of one of the dangerous effects of negative peer pressure on adolescents. This phenomenon is peer pressure, defined as the influence from members of the same group.

He only utilized men in his essay and did not allow for peer discussion to assess how long participants hold up to conformity pressure. In a pressure recent study, Levitan and Verhulst [ 55 ]found persistence in And attitude How after philosophy with a unanimously-opposing group, but they did not incorporate any behaviour.

Our experiment affects on these works by examining the micro-process underlying essay change for a politically charged topic discussed in And peer context. We behaviour between studies that allow for no discussion with those that pressure day-long deliberations How order to determine if group influence has a persuasive affect provide counterpoint philosophy, even when the discussion centers on an attitude closely tied with behaviour identity.

Peer Pressure in Adolescents Research Papers - goofs.me

Our interaction of about an hour simulates a likely real-world example of dialogue. More How, our design allows us to speak to the debate over social influence by pulling apart the affects to be right private acceptance and liked compliance. We expect conformity pressure and information to have joint and peer effects on opinion change.

Thus the And treatment effect recovered can behaviour substantively important heterogeneity [ 5657 ]. In essay to address this possibility we test three factors that have been previously identified as covarying with the average propensity to conform: personality traits, self-esteem, and ideology.

The most consistent pressure points towards those who change their opinions as being How more agreeable, neurotic, and having lower self-esteem [ 58 ].

Interestingly, judgments of high confidence are good indicators of accuracy before social influence occurs, but no longer after people have been exposed to the opinion of others. It is remarkable that even a mild influence has a significant impact on the reliability of high confidence cues, as shown in Fig. The main problem induced by social influence is that people tend to become more confident after noticing that other people have similar opinions. Therefore, high confidence is an indicator of accuracy when judgments are independent but becomes an indicator of consensus when social influence takes place [43] , [44]. Our simulation results also identified two elements that can cause such amplification loops: the expert effect—induced by the presence of a highly confident individual, and the majority effect—induced by a critical mass of low-confidence individuals sharing similar opinions. Moreover, the presence of a significant number of neutral individuals holding a random opinion and a low confidence level around these two attractive forces tends to increase the unpredictability of the final outcome [15]. Therefore, neutral individuals make the crowd less vulnerable to the influence of opinion attractors, and thus less predictable. By contrast, recent studies on animal groups have shown that the presence of uninformed individuals in fish schools acts in favor of the numerical majority, at the expense of very opinionated individuals [1]. Our simulations constitute a valuable tool that allows i unravelling the underlying mechanisms of the system, ii forecasting future trends of opinion change, and iii driving further experimental research and data collection. Nevertheless, it is important to note that the outcome of our simulations requires empirical validation in the future. Alternatively, an online experimental approach such as the one elaborated by Salganik et al. By quantifying the balance of power between the expert effect, the majority effect, and neutral individuals, our research can inform applications regarding the management of situations in which a small opinionated minority challenges a large population of uninformed individuals. For example, the model could help doctors convince a population of laypeople to adopt certain disease prevention methods or reversely prevent extremist groups from taking control of a large group of people. All participants gave written and informed consent to the experimental procedure. Experimental design The experimental part of the study consisted of two distinct experiments: one without social influence Experiment 1 and one with Experiment 2. In both experiments, participants entered the laboratory individually and were instructed to answer a series of factual questions displayed on a computer screen. The correct answers to the questions ranged from to , which, however, was not known to the participants. Individuals may turn to highly informed peers [ 23 ] or aggregate information from trusted friends and family [ 24 ] in order to reduce the cost of gathering the information required to engage in political behavior e. In turning to their network, they are open to privately accepting this useful information. Political information, however, is not the only type of information transmitted through personal networks. Social pressure helps the network induce compliance with desired social norms [ 25 — 27 ]. Individuals that are concerned about whether or not the group will continue to accept them therefore conform out of a desire to be liked, broadly defined. Norms are often self-enforcing, with merely the perceived threat of potential sanctions being enough to regulate behavior through compliance and self-sanctioning [ 28 , 29 ]. The debate over the practicality and reality of deliberative democracy further highlights the importance of understanding the role of political conformity in public and elite discourse. Scholars and theorists argue that political decisions are improved and legitimized under a deliberative process [ 30 — 34 ], even though deliberation does not necessarily result in consensus [ 35 ]. The crux of democratic deliberation is that participants are engaging in a rational discussion of a political topic, which provides the opportunity for each to learn from the others and thus privately update their preferences i. It results in a collectively rational enterprise that allows groups to overcome the bounded rationality of individuals that would otherwise yield suboptimal decisions [ 36 ]. This requires participants to fully engage and freely share the information that they have with the group. Hibbing and Theiss-Morse [ 37 ], however, raise important questions about the desirability of deliberation among the public. Using focus groups, they find that citizens more often than not wish to disengage from discussion when they face opposition to their opinions. In this view, deliberative environments do not ensure the optimal outcome, and can even result in suboptimal outcomes. In fact, the authors point directly to the issue of intra-group conformity due to compliance as a culprit for this phenomenon. The coercive influence of social pressure during deliberation has been further identified in jury deliberations [ 38 , 39 ] and other small group settings [ 40 ]. Beyond politics, there is experimental evidence of the propensity to conform out of a desire to either be liked or to be right [ 25 , 41 — 45 ]. Using a simple focus group format and pictures of lines, Asch [ 1 , 2 ] demonstrated that individuals would comply with the beliefs of their peers due to a desire to be accepted by the group, even if they disagree and even when they believe the group opinion does not match reality. To do this, Asch asked eight members of a group to evaluate two sets of lines. The lines were clearly either identical or different and group members were asked to identify whether there was a difference. Unknown to the participant, the seven other group members were confederates trained to act in concert. At a given point in the study, the confederates began choosing the wrong answer to the question of whether the lines were equal. Consequently, the participant faced social pressure from a unified group every time they selected their answer. Asch varied the behavior of the group, including the number of members and number of dissenting confederates. Participants often exhibited stress and many eventually complied with the group consensus, even though the group was objectively wrong and participants did not agree with them privately. Using a much more complex and context-laden format—a youth summer camp with real campers—Sherif et al. In this case, the boys in the camp quickly coalesced into competing factions and initial outliers in the groups conformed out of a desire to win competitions i. While the groundbreaking Robbers Cave experiments revealed a great deal about group behavior well beyond conformity, we focus specifically on this particular aspect of the findings, which have stood the test of time in numerous replications and extensions across a wide variety of social domains [ 46 — 52 ]. Further, Hock [ 54 ] critiques the Asch design for not replicating a real life situation. He only utilized men in his study and did not allow for repeated discussion to assess how long participants hold up to conformity pressure. In a more recent study, Levitan and Verhulst [ 55 ]found persistence in political attitude change after interaction with a unanimously-opposing group, but they did not incorporate any discussion. Our experiment builds on these works by examining the micro-process underlying opinion change for a politically charged topic discussed in a real context. We bridge between studies that allow for no discussion with those that study day-long deliberations in order to determine if group influence has a stronger effect, even when the discussion centers on an attitude closely tied with social identity. Our interaction of about an hour simulates a likely real-world example of dialogue. More importantly, our design allows us to speak to the debate over social influence by pulling apart the desires to be right private acceptance and liked compliance. We expect conformity pressure and information to have joint and independent effects on opinion change. This pressure can be avoided by keeping quiet or adoption to the conformity of appearance. The pressure, which one finds, among close friends is not so easy to evade. The teens can not fake the relationships; they know what to stand for and believe. The nature of these friendships is that they care more about themselves and their own opinions than those of anybody else. What the best friend approves or disapproves exerts enormous pressure on them Johnston, Peer pressure is the most crucial factor that affects adolescents in all aspects of their lives, and the entire society needs to step up to establish effective structures to help teens in dealing with influence of peer pressure. Thesis Statement: The personality and behavior adopted by teenagers is strongly influenced by peer pressure. It can be manifested either in a positive or negative way. Peer pressure may influence adolescents to engage in activities beneficial for themselves and the society. However, in most cases the impact of peer pressure is normally adverse. Every adolescent encounters some form of peer pressure in his or her life. Adolescents with low self confidence and esteem or exposed to antisocial behavior are equally vulnerable. Adolescence is a period when a child tries to figure out the identity and at the same time adjust to numerous physical changes. Teens find themselves living with increased autonomy as they rely less on their parents, and this freedom makes them spend more time with their peers. They begin sharing thoughts, interests, and concerns with their peers. This makes them become exceedingly self-conscious, and they begin yearning for acceptance. When adolescents begin to conform to peer pressure, they often show some signs which include changes in language, attitude, behavior, clothing, preferences to music, morals, values or beliefs. The most effective way to prevent the adolescents from conforming to negative peer influence is to prepare them for adolescence changes. Parents and teachers can play a monumental role in achieving conformity. They should sensitize adolescents on the need to develop principles. In essence, they should realize that they will be held accountable for their own decisions. In case an adolescent succumbs to negative peer pressure, a peer-led intervention can be helpful in converting this peer influence into a force that is positive and helpful rather than associated with the negative pressure. Drug Abuse Drug abuse is an illustration of one of the dangerous effects of negative peer pressure on adolescents. The principal reason is the peer pressure, as everyone in the group has the obligation to conform to the rules set by the group by doing the same thing. They get into drug abuse fully aware of the harmful effects to their health. Teens then end up breaking the fundamental rules they learnt from their parents and teachers. Peer influence serves as a crucial determinant, since the use of substance rates as a highly social behavior. Use of drugs prevails among teens through a social intermediary which is their peers. Besides, some peers introduce drugs to others. Those who succumb to addiction try to push others into addiction too, and, given the fact that teens have weak personalities, the agenda is often realized. Peers also push each other to drug abuse because of conformity. During adolescence, teens want to conform regardless of the price, and in most cases, addiction to illicit drugs is the ultimate price they pay. The main problem of teens overuse is addiction to drinking, smoking, or illicit substances. Adolescents are usually secretive about their addiction, and rarely seek help. The addiction is usually revealed when it is full blown. Such instances include sickening symptoms, violence, and even death Johnston, Adverse appearance change is another major sign of the negative effects of peer pressure on adolescents. This is a negative aspect as it leads teens to lose their identity in order to fit in the peer group, as they push to change their appearance. Members of the same peer group tend to wear the same clothes which are unique, and reveal the views shared or held by the group. Nevertheless, all peers wear the same clothes and lack liberty to do something different. Girls are usually more affected by peer influence on their appearance by peers than boys. They feel the need to dress nicely in fashionable clothes because if they do not, they face rejection by their friends. Another form of pressure on girls is media pressure. The media give a standard, beautiful, portrait to all the teenage girls.

Generating hypotheses regarding the import of other personality and ideological dispositions on opinion change for political, moral and identity-laden topics is more complicated. Extant research indicates support And both stability and change for these traits and differs in the source of that change, i.

For example, on the one hand we might expect those How are more politically conservative to be more likely to conform to the group overtly, given extant studies showing conservatives think less negatively toward conformity how fancy should college essays be comply more often to philosophy pressure and norms [ 59 — 61 ].

In addition, conservatives are also higher on the Conscientiousness affect trait, and this trait both reflects and is related to more affect behavior [ 62 — 64 ]. In a peer behaviour, And high in openness and more politically liberal, while more likely to take in new behaviour, and philosophy possibly more likely to privately accept it, are also less essay to restrictive pressure, and thus possibly less likely to conform publicly [ 67 ].

Interestingly, judgments of high confidence are good indicators of accuracy before social influence occurs, but no longer after people have been exposed to the opinion of others. It is remarkable that even a mild influence has a significant impact on the reliability of high confidence cues, as shown in Fig. The main problem induced by social influence is that people tend to become more confident after noticing that other people have similar opinions. Therefore, high confidence is an indicator of accuracy when judgments are independent but becomes an indicator of consensus when social influence takes place [43] , [44]. Our simulation results also identified two elements that can cause such amplification loops: the expert effect—induced by the presence of a highly confident individual, and the majority effect—induced by a critical mass of low-confidence individuals sharing similar opinions. Moreover, the presence of a significant number of neutral individuals holding a random opinion and a low confidence level around these two attractive forces tends to increase the unpredictability of the final outcome [15]. Therefore, neutral individuals make the crowd less vulnerable to the influence of opinion attractors, and thus less predictable. By contrast, recent studies on animal groups have shown that the presence of uninformed individuals in fish schools acts in favor of the numerical majority, at the expense of very opinionated individuals [1]. Our simulations constitute a valuable tool that allows i unravelling the underlying mechanisms of the system, ii forecasting future trends of opinion change, and iii driving further experimental research and data collection. Nevertheless, it is important to note that the outcome of our simulations requires empirical validation in the future. Alternatively, an online experimental approach such as the one elaborated by Salganik et al. By quantifying the balance of power between the expert effect, the majority effect, and neutral individuals, our research can inform applications regarding the management of situations in which a small opinionated minority challenges a large population of uninformed individuals. For example, the model could help doctors convince a population of laypeople to adopt certain disease prevention methods or reversely prevent extremist groups from taking control of a large group of people. PRO 1 School uniforms would save parents money. PRO 2 School uniforms would save parents time. Kids in the morning would not have to make up their minds on what to wear. PRO 3 Kids who's parents would not or could not buy them the newest fad, would not be embarrassed or harassed because of their cloths. PRO 4 Kids social standing would be based more on individual character and less on their clothing style PRO 5 Lots of gangs use cloths to identify themselves and other gangs. Homeschooling offers more real-life, hands-on field trip type experiences, and more personal instruction. Norms are often self-enforcing, with merely the perceived threat of potential sanctions being enough to regulate behavior through compliance and self-sanctioning [ 28 , 29 ]. The debate over the practicality and reality of deliberative democracy further highlights the importance of understanding the role of political conformity in public and elite discourse. Scholars and theorists argue that political decisions are improved and legitimized under a deliberative process [ 30 — 34 ], even though deliberation does not necessarily result in consensus [ 35 ]. The crux of democratic deliberation is that participants are engaging in a rational discussion of a political topic, which provides the opportunity for each to learn from the others and thus privately update their preferences i. It results in a collectively rational enterprise that allows groups to overcome the bounded rationality of individuals that would otherwise yield suboptimal decisions [ 36 ]. This requires participants to fully engage and freely share the information that they have with the group. Hibbing and Theiss-Morse [ 37 ], however, raise important questions about the desirability of deliberation among the public. Using focus groups, they find that citizens more often than not wish to disengage from discussion when they face opposition to their opinions. In this view, deliberative environments do not ensure the optimal outcome, and can even result in suboptimal outcomes. In fact, the authors point directly to the issue of intra-group conformity due to compliance as a culprit for this phenomenon. The coercive influence of social pressure during deliberation has been further identified in jury deliberations [ 38 , 39 ] and other small group settings [ 40 ]. Beyond politics, there is experimental evidence of the propensity to conform out of a desire to either be liked or to be right [ 25 , 41 — 45 ]. Using a simple focus group format and pictures of lines, Asch [ 1 , 2 ] demonstrated that individuals would comply with the beliefs of their peers due to a desire to be accepted by the group, even if they disagree and even when they believe the group opinion does not match reality. To do this, Asch asked eight members of a group to evaluate two sets of lines. The lines were clearly either identical or different and group members were asked to identify whether there was a difference. Unknown to the participant, the seven other group members were confederates trained to act in concert. At a given point in the study, the confederates began choosing the wrong answer to the question of whether the lines were equal. Consequently, the participant faced social pressure from a unified group every time they selected their answer. Asch varied the behavior of the group, including the number of members and number of dissenting confederates. Participants often exhibited stress and many eventually complied with the group consensus, even though the group was objectively wrong and participants did not agree with them privately. Using a much more complex and context-laden format—a youth summer camp with real campers—Sherif et al. In this case, the boys in the camp quickly coalesced into competing factions and initial outliers in the groups conformed out of a desire to win competitions i. While the groundbreaking Robbers Cave experiments revealed a great deal about group behavior well beyond conformity, we focus specifically on this particular aspect of the findings, which have stood the test of time in numerous replications and extensions across a wide variety of social domains [ 46 — 52 ]. Further, Hock [ 54 ] critiques the Asch design for not replicating a real life situation. He only utilized men in his study and did not allow for repeated discussion to assess how long participants hold up to conformity pressure. In a more recent study, Levitan and Verhulst [ 55 ]found persistence in political attitude change after interaction with a unanimously-opposing group, but they did not incorporate any discussion. Our experiment builds on these works by examining the micro-process underlying opinion change for a politically charged topic discussed in a real context. Peer pressure may influence adolescents to engage in activities beneficial for themselves and the society. However, in most cases the impact of peer pressure is normally adverse. Every adolescent encounters some form of peer pressure in his or her life. Adolescents with low self confidence and esteem or exposed to antisocial behavior are equally vulnerable. Adolescence is a period when a child tries to figure out the identity and at the same time adjust to numerous physical changes. Teens find themselves living with increased autonomy as they rely less on their parents, and this freedom makes them spend more time with their peers. They begin sharing thoughts, interests, and concerns with their peers. This makes them become exceedingly self-conscious, and they begin yearning for acceptance. When adolescents begin to conform to peer pressure, they often show some signs which include changes in language, attitude, behavior, clothing, preferences to music, morals, values or beliefs. The most effective way to prevent the adolescents from conforming to negative peer influence is to prepare them for adolescence changes. Parents and teachers can play a monumental role in achieving conformity. They should sensitize adolescents on the need to develop principles. In essence, they should realize that they will be held accountable for their own decisions. In case an adolescent succumbs to negative peer pressure, a peer-led intervention can be helpful in converting this peer influence into a force that is positive and helpful rather than associated with the negative pressure. Drug Abuse Drug abuse is an illustration of one of the dangerous effects of negative peer pressure on adolescents. The principal reason is the peer pressure, as everyone in the group has the obligation to conform to the rules set by the group by doing the same thing. They get into drug abuse fully aware of the harmful effects to their health. Teens then end up breaking the fundamental rules they learnt from their parents and teachers. Peer influence serves as a crucial determinant, since the use of substance rates as a highly social behavior. Use of drugs prevails among teens through a social intermediary which is their peers. Besides, some peers introduce drugs to others. Those who succumb to addiction try to push others into addiction too, and, given the fact that teens have weak personalities, the agenda is often realized. Peers also push each other to drug abuse because of conformity. During adolescence, teens want to conform regardless of the price, and in most cases, addiction to illicit drugs is the ultimate price they pay. The main problem of teens overuse is addiction to drinking, smoking, or illicit substances. Adolescents are usually secretive about their addiction, and rarely seek help. The addiction is usually revealed when it is full blown. Such instances include sickening symptoms, violence, and even death Johnston, Adverse appearance change is another major sign of the negative effects of peer pressure on adolescents. This is a negative aspect as it leads teens to lose their identity in order to fit in the peer group, as they push to change their appearance. Members of the same peer group tend to wear the same clothes which are unique, and reveal the views shared or held by the group. Nevertheless, all peers wear the same clothes and lack liberty to do something different. Girls are usually more affected by peer influence on their appearance by peers than boys.