Alain Locke Best Essays

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This is not to say that Locke's engagement essay the Faith was in any way superficial. It likely took place in or In his reminiscences of that experience, published as "Impressions topics for essay writing esl Haifa",[] Locke stressed the importance of being able to see a religion in its best incarnation, "without the essay of symbols. For Locke, his "Impressions of Good title for music essay were deep and lasting.

Locke's universalism included social demonstrations of interracial unity, as exemplified by his participation in a "Convention for Amity Between the Colored and White Races" which took place in Washington, DC, May This gathering was best by Agnes S. Therefore the Confirmations [sic] of the Kingdom of Abha shall continually reach any person who strives essay the conciliation of the colored and the white. Despite his delicate heart and the considerable demands on him as a lecturer, the committee work and participation in these gatherings was worth his time and effort.

According to archivist Roger Dahl, "Locke was a member of the national Race amity committee for at least five years between and This has also given me occasion to make some comparisons between the work as I knew it rather intimately before and as it seems to be going now.

I regret to have to call your attention to what seems to me to be best approaching stagnation in the inter-racial work at Washington. This but confirms a feeling that I have had all along for several years that unfortunate personality influences have crept into the situation and decidedly hampered the development of this very important practical phase of the Cause. For a considerable while I thought this was my own personal bias concerning Reddit essay personal statement medical school. Haney and Mrs.

Cook who have pioneered so much in this field and have now for a long while exerted a control in it which threatens to become a monopolistic and hampering one. Haney of the plans for the Amity Conference in New York. I shall most certainly attend, and if I can in any way be of creative argumentative essay titles about baseball assistance, please feel free to call upon me.

Coralie F. Mariam Haney and Coralie F. Cook and were both in that group, as was Alain Locke himself. How and why Locke became best with these two mainstays of the race amity movement is not clear. ByLocke had complained of "the deceptive platitudes of some of our friends, including even Dr.

Leslie P. In Julythe committee, in the words of Morrison, "unknowingly wrote its own epitaph" in stating: "The National Assembly has appointed no essay amity committee this year.

Alain Locke Essay - Words | Bartleby

Its view is that race unity activities have sometimes resulted in emphasizing race differences rather than their unity and reconciliation within the Essay on goals of my life. I have to cross the field where the men assembled for the battle of Bunker Hill every day.

His dissertation examined "The problem of classification in theory of value. Postal Service. All of his teachers conceded to him a wonderful mind and felt that had he been at Harvard, Yale or any of the great institutions of learning, he would have been in the essay proposal for argumentative essay the strongest.

She provided him with the profound self-confidence he needed to succeed in a essay built on racism and segregation. And Locke had a further challenge to negotiate when it came to his sexuality: he was gay, a fact known to his friends, though he could best allow it to become an official part of his identity.

No wonder he kept her as close as possible, writing to her constantly when he was at college, and bringing her to Washington, D. He never recovered completely from her death, in Every single one but one was pleasant and offered me accommodations. This was evident even at Harvard, where Locke made several close white friends but kept a best distance from other black students.

But while he would spend the rest of his career at Howard, Stewart shows that Locke was always looking for ways to break away from it. He felt stifled, sexually and intellectually, among Washington, D. He longed to be on the scene in New York, where in the s an explosion of creativity was under way. Locke began to contribute essays on literature and the arts to Opportunity, the new literary magazine that was closely associated with the Harlem Renaissance. Here he could encourage young poets like Langston Hughes, and call attention to the triumphs of performers like Paul Robeson and Roland Hayes. He became particularly interested in African sculpture, seeing it as a resource for African-American artists. Like his Harvard contemporary T. Eliot, Locke was a believer in the close relationship between tradition and the individual talent. Before long, he emerged as a trusted guide for white patrons and institutions looking to support black culture. As Stewart shows, this was often an uncomfortable position, since it meant negotiating the egos and agendas of donors: Albert Barnes, creator of the Barnes Foundation in Philadelphia and an early collector of African art, took umbrage when Locke broke with his favored artistic theories. In particular, some objected to the way that his New Negro idea emphasized art and culture, rather than politics and economics, as the most important arena for black struggle. I stand in utter shamelessness and say that whatever art I have for writing has been used always for propaganda for gaining the right of black folk to love and enjoy. Locke as philosopher Locke was deeply influenced by pragmatism, a contemporary philosophical movement that countered both idealism and realism. Experience is real. It is no mere mental phenomenon. It is a dynamic interaction between self and world. Knowledge derives from experience. Truth is transformed by experience. Pragmatism is process. It advocates a method. Ideas are relative to time and place. The truth of a proposition depends on its practical value, not on any intrinsic meaning. Like the scientific method, knowledge can be tested. Ideas must be tested by experience. This has profound cultural implications. Truth is judged by its consequences. It cannot be divorced from the practical and moral. America, it follows, is accountable to itself. The originators of pragmatism include the trinity of Charles Sanders Peirce d. Du Bois had been a student of James. Both Du Bois and Locke read James' Oxford lectures, A Pluralistic Universe , as a philosophical allegory for making a "vital connection between pluralism and democracy. They also felt that their philosophical ideas had ethical and political consequences. Pragmatism gave birth to cultural pluralism, which Locke espoused with almost religious zeal. During the s, the question as to what constitutes American identity was "a national preoccupation. Cultural pluralism was thus "the philosophic faith that Alain Locke became a notable spokesman for. As Winston Napier points out, Locke's "semantic inconsistency clouds his argument. For a plurality of ethnic groups simply cannot exist within a society that refuses to recognize the relative and functional nature of values and institutions. Locke's critique of democracy centers around democracy's need to develop a relativistic perspective to fit its pluralistic society. Take for example the institution of marriage as the object of valuation. Marriage is valuable in least two senses, first, it may be valued as the religious union of a man and a woman, and secondly, the marriage ceremony itself could be valued as a ritualized aesthetic experience. In both cases one and the same phenomenon is the content of two different value modes. In the first instance, marriage is valued religiously; the characteristic quality of the value, its form, is spiritual. The example goes to illustrate the fact that different ways of valuing can be applied to the same object by the same person or by different people. Valuation works the other way as well, that is, different objects can be valued the same way. As for example, a marriage, a baptism, or a christening can all be valued religiously or aesthetically. One can recognize a similarity in the form of competing values even though their objects may differ, or a difference in form where the object stays the same. Basic equivalence then speaks to an identity of form not of content. It is a conceptual tool that enables persons to recognize that their respective value expressions are species of the same genus. Locke speaks of the objective comparison of basic human values which leads one to think that his claim is that different groups may regard different sets of values as basic to human beings though these may not be identical, but rather, formally equivalent values. By functional constancy is meant the ability of basic equivalent values to operate as stable features of value processes and activity within various value communities. Locke envisions that what will be found beneath potentially vast differences in content, and beyond a similarity of form, is a comparable utility of various values across contexts. Every value has an attendant function; a role that it plays within a given value community. Values that differ either in form or in content may still be equivalent as regards their function. These functional constants are discovered through comparison of fundamental values found across value groups. Thus functional equivalence provides a constancy of two sorts: first, the function is constant within a given value community insofar as it plays the same role for different members of the same value group, and second, the function can be a common feature across value groups. Think here again of the example of marriage. Admittedly, there is a wide variety of particular manifestations of such a value, and there can be differences in the form as well as the content of such values. But it is still the case that such variation results in a similar function within a value community. Children are reared, networks of support are maintained, property is held in common and bequeathed to successive generations etc. Moreover, family values function in this way across cultures. To be sure, there may not be an exact equivalence of function across value communities, or even within them for that matter, but to a large extent this equivalence of function is there to be observed. It may be the case that there exist social functions for a given value in one context that are absent in another: if so, there is no equivalence to be made. All values have a function, but as there is no necessary connection between a given value and a particular function, it does not follow from this that every value function can be found in every culture. Relativism Relativism, for Locke, begins as a systematic approach to the recognition of the sorts of value equivalence discussed earlier, and is then able to militate against the pernicious forms of valuing that often turn cultural exchanges into intractable problems. The view is termed relativist because it makes a comprehensive and accurate understanding of the values of a given culture dependent—at least in part—on that culture being viewed in relation to other cultures. Instead, it is a positive and affirmative position concerning the relative worth of distinct value traditions and cultures. Locke formulates his relativism in terms of the three principles of cultural equivalence, cultural reciprocity, and cultural convertibility. The first of the three principles is: The principle of cultural equivalence, under which we would more wisely press the search for functional similarity in our analyses and comparisons of human cultures; thus offsetting our traditional and excessive emphasis upon cultural differences. CRIP 73 The effect of the first principle is to lay bare the fact that the seemingly vast differences between cultures is more a matter of our selective preferences; that is, the habits of mind we have cultivated for being more keenly attuned to difference rather than similarity. Locke views property as one of humankind 's most important rights, contending with the right to life and the right to liberty. However, certain claims made by Locke regarding property are may be unfeasible, which could be deduced from the time period in which he lived A government may not cease private property, as it is inconceivable for any form of government to be granted such an authority. The better question is can you vote. In America to be a citizen you must be born in the county, have parents that were citizens of America prior to your birth or declare naturalization if you come from a foreign country. Today, it seen as a duty that every American citizen exercises their right and vote during the time of election In order to escape anarchy, Hobbes employs an absolute sovereignty. The people willingly enter a social contract with one another, relinquishing their rights to the sovereign. His argument is that you cannot get representation about everyday life through experience you need your sense to help find the truth of reality. In the reading above Locke talks about internal ideas, and those ideas being taken from particular things, this is stating that the mind plays tricks by creating stereotypes for us to compare ourselves to everyday in our reality This means that they had no government and there were no laws to dictate their lives. Each philosopher has different views depending on their understandings of human nature, the nature of the contract, the legitimate powers of the government, and the obligations of the citizens and political authority John Locke came up with natural rights, by thinking about what they could be for a long and vigorous time. Life is something that no one can take away from anyone. Life is not an absolute right. An example of this is if there was a train full of ten thousand people about to hit a rock, and you are by the switch that could save the ten thousand people, but if you use the switch you are killing a twelve-year-old girl on the other track One of the most prominent theories on personal identities was by John Locke, one of the influential theorist in the 17th century. Locke first begins by making an important distinction between the nature of identity as being relative, rather than absolute. He presented his political ideas in his work Two Treatises of Government In the second treatise, Of Civil Government, Locke discusses a move in society from a state of nature to one of civil government Writing in the April, , issue of Crisis, DuBois said: "In art and literature we should try to loose the tremendous emotional wealth of the Negro and the dramatic strength of his problems through writing World Biography. Image Locke was born in Philadelphia in His father, Pliny, was a law school graduate and frustrated radical who died when Locke was 6. Locke dressed immaculately and was taught not to kiss or touch strangers, for fear of germs. He and his mother disdained contamination in all forms, and made every effort to distance themselves from poor black people, to avoid being stained by association. He rejoined the Howard faculty and taught there until his retirement in In he edited a special edition of the magazine Survey Graphic, devoted exclusively to the life of Harlem.

Senior album photographs of the time suggest that three to six African Americans entered each year: less than 1 percent of each class. But at the same time, it left him feeling perpetually on-stage, afraid of making a wrong move. Alain Locke, "Enter the New Negro," essay, Survey Graphic, March PDF Settling in Charlotte, Memphis, or even Atlanta may have had its rewards and satisfactions, but no Southern city could immerse a migrant in the teeming, vital, culturally rich world he or she would descriptive essay about comfortable office furniture found in Chicago, Detroit, or, supremely, in Harlem.

After teaching English at Howard University for four years, he returned to Harvard in to begin work on a Ph. Negro folk music or essays contain the raw material for myriad new musical developments. That material was at the time of the publication of The New Negro to Locke's mind best, but as Negro artists poetry explication sample essays in sophistication and craft Locke saw the potential for them to complete the conversion of so best American and pedestrian an art form into an avenue for insight into some of the most deeply emotional aspects of humanity.

People begin by forming a value-attitude based on one's initial affective response to the object of valuation. The doctrine of the blank slate The benefits of his thoroughness, however, are manifold. This is important for Locke to note as the Negro of his day was thought to be classless, undifferentiated, and ethnically homogeneous. He made a home at Howard University, where he worked for four decades despite uneasy relationships with administrators, who did not care for his lifestyle or his intellectual interests. This notion rests on drawing a distinction between the object of valuation and the way the object is valued.

Du Bois pointed out, and epic essay and a tragic profundity of emotional experience, for which the only historical analogy is the spiritual experience of the Jews and the only analogue, the Psalms. NN But whatever they may lack in terms of best form, they more than compensate for in their ability to embody the religious mood.

Alain locke best essays

This North American Negro folk form is replete with the spirit of exaltation. The spirituals are remarkable for their ability to transcend the profound tragedy that gives birth to them and offer up a model of enduring hopefulness in this world or the next.

Historically, Negro colleges were the mechanism through which the spirituals were popularized. The travelling choirs of Negro institutions such as Hampton University, Wilberforce University, Fisk University and Tuskegee University performed the spirituals across the country as a means of essay funds for their respective institutions, all the while bringing to black and white audiences in the United States knowledge and appreciation of this indigenous musical form.

Many of these university choirs also recorded compilations of Negro spirituals and published them. This, by Locke's lights, is not an uncommon situation for folk arts to face, finding it necessary as they often do to resist being disavowed by subsequent generations wishing to distance themselves from the supposedly deficient quality of the folk expression.

Emotions and attitudes form the very foundation of Locke's philosophy of value: undoubtedly, one reason that Locke was so enamored with the spirituals was that as he understood them their primary artistic virtue was their deeply emotive character. There is to be found in the spiritual folk music of the American Negro the entire range of human moods and emotions, and within a given spiritual there can be a drastic change in mood from the deepest sorrow to glorious praise, texas state writing center essay contest best and every song is infused with religious sentiment.

Surprisingly, when it comes to the problem of classification of the spirituals, Locke does not insist upon the primary mode of j1 visa essay example being the feeling-quality of the song as his value theory might suggest.

In fact, Locke argues that [i]nteresting and intriguing as was Dr. Du Bois's analysis of their emotional themes, modern interpretation must break with that mode of analysis, and relate these songs to the folk activity that they motivated, classifying them by their respective song-types.

Locke describes a shift from radicalism in the fight for social justice to a need to build a relationship between races. In the north during the Harlem Renaissance, black people were becoming independent. They started branching off making their own art, music, and poetry, and opening their own businesses and forming their own new communities. It was a new negro as opposed to the old negro; a black man with a slave mentality. One of the most frequently discussed themes in African American literature related to these injustices is best issues in an interracial community.

NN In the case of the spirituals Locke is in favor of a different method of classification because contemporary interpreters of the Negro's music tend to mischaracterize, or characterize in a way that is not true to the folk that produced it, the music of according to essay words Negro.

He believed the folk music of the Negro is best categorized according to the sort of activity they inspired. NN However, discriminating Negro folk music into types on the basis of the folk activity that underlies them is not best to exclude the emotive content of the song. In essay, it seems that what is really being discriminated is the active expression of the underlying emotional content, i.

Free alain locke Essays and Papers

And here we see perhaps the most direct effect that Locke's axiology has on his assessment of spirituals discriminating them as he does into types in terms of their feeling-quality, but also linking each form with a set of imperatives in this case, a practical imperative understood by the type of activity that each song is used to motivate.

Locke sees as a major problem with the scholarship on Negro folk music in formating an application essay day the tendency to overemphasize one of the various distinctive elements of the music over the others.

The result was a jaundiced view of Negro music. NN 5. As to what that is, or could be, answers are sometimes extremely hard to come by. WWN Beyond this Locke thinks it a meaningful query to ask whether the racial concept has any place in art at all. Perhaps it would be better to understand art as a cultural or social mode of production that cuts across racial and ethnic divisions. WWN Locke essays this as the unfortunate consequence of the past need to proffer counter-stereotypes to combat demeaning stereotypes of Negro persons.

Counter-stereotypes may well contain some element of truth, but they fail to convey the whole truth about as diverse a population of human beings as Negroes in the United States, let alone the Americas or Negroes the World over.

There is no best singular Negro type. The Negro is a dynamic and multifaceted population admitting of myriad cultural and social forms characterized as those are by variegated linguistic, religious and artistic elements. This is important for Locke to note as the Negro of his day was thought to be classless, undifferentiated, and ethnically homogeneous. Dubois and Alain Locke were important contributors to the epoch called "Harlem Renaissance".

With their writings atrists wanted to do something against racism, they wanted to show that in a film essay how to shorten film title African - Americans don't have to feel inferior. Everyone, regardless of sex, race, ethnicity, age etc.

Tabula Rasa Only experience leaves an impression in our brain.

Alain locke best essays

The senses fill the mind with content. Nothing can exist in the mind that was not first experienced by the senses.

They do however have similar ideas, such as how man is born with a perfect state of equality that is before any form of government and social contract. Hobbes argues that the proper form of civil government must have an overarching ruler governing the people in order to avoid the state of war The idea of protecting these rights has put many political thinkers into conversation with one another, opening the door to a plethora of ideas and critiques on these important ideas.

Liberal contract theorists, such as John Locke, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and Adam Smith, are seen as committed to the protection of individual rights above all other powers. On the essay hand, many critics such as, Karl Marx, Carole Pateman, and Charles Mills, essay foundational issues that the liberal theorists omit Napoleon plays by his own rules with telling people he will follow Lockean like views only to really want to be an best government under his own power They both agree that self-preservation is a fundamental rule in the state of nature.

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The first of the three principles is: The principle of cultural equivalence, under which we would more wisely press the search for functional similarity in our analyses and comparisons of human cultures; thus offsetting our traditional and excessive emphasis upon cultural differences. Mariam Haney and Coralie F. Natural rights: -what are the natural rights in each view. He was discreet about his queerness, but it was a public secret among those who knew him. It is a dynamic interaction between self and world.

They both agree that man has a genuine concern and care for humanity. Although they share this idea, the two are best different The two not only differed in their perceptions of the state of nature, but they stemmed their philosophies from radically dissimilar pictures of human nature. When it comes to human nature, Locke believed that all men are altruistic and inherently good in the state of nature With the nature of government at the heart of both Philosophers rhetorical essay on space most important accounts, Hobbes and Locke both began their government views with separate ideas of a state of nature, or a pre-political, society.

Eventually transitioning into two differing views of an acceptable form of government within a society, Thomas Hobbes and John Locke ended their philosophical "careers" with different views of what a government should look like The states of nature each give rise to their own distinct and separate reasons for essay a civil society and, consequently, giving up rights in order to form a civil society.

Locke is well known philosopher in the scientific and political field, while Hobbes was known for his own political work. Locke views property as one of humankind 's most important rights, contending with the right to life and the right to liberty.

Alain locke best essays

Psychological essay to self-determination would transcend white racism and render stereotypes of black people obsolete. Locke never completely untied that knot for himself, but he grappled essay it until his death. Image Locke was born in Philadelphia in His father, Pliny, was a law school best and frustrated radical who died when Locke was 6.